PRIN2017 - Dis/Connection: Labor and Rights in the Internet Revolution

Project code: 2017EC9CPX
Main ERC field: SH - Social Sciences and Humanities
ERC subfields: SH2_4 Legal studies, constitutions, human rights, comparative law

This project is focused on the legal issues that emerge in the regulation of work in connection with the so-called Fourth industrial revolution, namely, the technological revolution. The first aim of the project is to assess the degree to which the Italian legal system is equipped to deal with the new problem of reconciling productivity with the new needs of workers’ protection, taking under consideration also the comparative and European perspective. Its second aim will be to offer solutions to this set of issues, including proposals for regulation. According to this, the four research units (the Universities of Bologna, Udine, Venice Cà Foscari and Naples) will be analysing the regulation of work relationships and the organization of enterprises from different perspectives in order to identify strengths and weaknesses of the legislation. In treating the new challenges, posed by industry and work in their current embodiment, it will be necessary to introduce perspectives not strictly tied to labor and work, bringing civil and business law into the picture so as to address questions relating to privacy, intellectual property, competition and the markets’ regulation.

Principal Investigator

Davide Casale

Associate Professor

Academics participating in the project
(including those who joined e.g. due to calls for research grants and those who left e.g. due to a change of university location):

BOLOGNA:

  • Casale Davide
    Associate Professor of Labour Law, University of Bologna (national coordinator)
  • Battista Leonardo
    Research fellow of Labour Law, University of Bologna
  • Cangemi Vincenzo
    RTDa of Labour Law, University of Turin
  • Castellucci Sebastiano
    PhD student in Labour Law, University of Bologna
  • Drigo Caterina
    Associate Professor of Constitutional Law, University of Bologna
  • Gilotta Sergio
    Researcher of Commercial Law, University of Bologna
  • Guardigli Elena
    Research fellow of Private Law, University of Bologna
  • Marinelli Francesca
    Associate Professor of Labour Law, University of Milan Statale
  • Martino Marco
    Associate Professor of Private Law, University of Bologna
  • Nisco Attilio
    Associate Professor of Criminal Law, University of Bologna
  • Renzetti Silvia
    RTDb of Criminal Procedure Law, University of Bologna
  • Spedicato Giorgio
    Associate Professor of Commercial Law, University of Bologna

UDINE

  • Zilli Anna
    Associate Professor of Labour Law, University of Udine (coordinator of the Research Unit)
  • Giovanella Federica
    RTDb of Comparative Private Law, University of Udine
  • Maggio Ida Carla
    Research fellow until 30.06.2021, Labour Law, University of Udine
  • Mazzanti Caterina
    PhD Candidate until 31.10.2020, Labour Law, University of Udine
  • Miotto Linda
    Confirmed Researcher of Commercial Law, University of Udine
  • Riccio Antonio
    RTDb in Labour Law, University of Cassino

VENICE CÀ FOSCARI

  • Falsone Maurizio
    Associate Professor of Labour Law, Cà Foscari University of Venice (coordinator of the Research Unit)
  • Gaudio Giovanni
    Research fellow of Labour Law, Cà Foscari University of Venice
  • Mostarda Ambra
    PhD student in Labour Law, Cà Foscari University of Venice
  • Massimiliano De Falco
    PhD student in Labour Law, University of Siena, Research Fellow 

NAPLES

  • Monda Pasquale
    RTDb in Labour Law, University of Naples Federico II (coordinator of the Research Unit)
  • Cordella Costantino
    Research fellow of Labour Law, University of Naples Federico II
  • D'Avino Emilia
    RTDa of Labour Law of the University Parthenope of Naples
  • Tomassetti Paolo
    RTDb of Labour Law of the State University of Milano

Abstract

This research project is devoted to the legal regulation of work in the so-called Fourth industrial revolution, characterized by the development of automation, intelligent robotics, and the ability to combine automation, data exchange and digital innovation.
The s.c. Fourth industrial revolution is upending the organization of work and of work relations, both individual (contracts) and collective (industrial relations). This project therefore brings into focus the problems that are cropping up in this new economic-productive scenario so as to identify when the regulation of work is obsolete, as well as areas where, by contrast, it does still serve a useful and effective function in the new labor market. This legal analysis will be carried out with a view to protecting constitutional principles in the new socioeconomic landscape (with an emphasis on the principles enshrined in Title III, Part I, of the Italian Constitution of 1948). This means that we will be looking to identify solutions for bringing Italian labor law and collective bargaining up to date in the new industrial-productive scenario.
More to the point, the project is aimed at singling out and analysing the problems that emerge in contexts where employers can exercise their powers using technology. The quick pace of development in digital technology in a wide range of productive sectors raises the urgent problem of bringing Italian labor law in accordance with the core principles underpinning the activities it regulates. The two are often difficult to reconcile, or at least they appear to be: on the one hand, the need of entrepreneurs is to increase productivity and streamline their operations; on the other, there is a necessity to protect the dignity of workers and their quality of life. The research aims to deep those legal issues that arise from that most disruptive of technologies, namely, the Internet, or rather the use of the Internet as a tool by which to link up machines, operating systems, workers, and clients. While Italian labor law has been renewed in various aspects, it is still incomplete; leaving important questions unanswered in the face of the new ways that have been found to manage an increasing range of powers held by employers, especially as concerns their multifaceted control over the way that work is to be performed, even remotely. The latest technologies can be used in ways threating privacy: this brings the question of workers’ dignity into focus, making it necessary to reshape the constraints that employers are subject to, under the traditional prohibition on monitoring aspects of employees’ personal life that have no bearing on their performance. More generally, the s.c. Fourth industrial revolution makes it necessary to reconsider some basic concepts in labor law, including that of an employment (dependent) relationship: consider, for example, the position of so-called “riders” (of Foodora, Deliveroo … et a.) and other workers engaged in the gig economy via app, or the questions arising from the situation of workers providing professional services using a remote and /or Internet connection.
Four research units, assigned to different aspects of the investigation, will carry out the project. The University of Bologna will coordinate the project and carry out research under the heading “The New Context: Technology, Work, Employers’ Powers, Individual Rights”. The University of Udine will address the matter of “Balancing the Interests at Stake: Technological Disintermediation and Protection of the Weaker Party”. The University of Venice Cà Foscari will be dealing with the issue of “Qualifying Work Relationships: New Jobs, Dependent/Independent Work, the Need for New Protections”. The University of Naples “Federico II” will be devoted to “Labor Unions in the Fourth Industrial Revolution: Democracy, Representation, and Collective Protection”.

Description of the project

THE CONTEXT AND THE THEME

In the era of Internet and digital revolution, the employer is rarely a natural person exercising a commanding influence over the work: this role is being handed over to technologies that disintermediate the relation. It is possible to remotely direct and control the performance, thereby depersonalizing the employment relationship, while at the same time augmenting the powers that employers wield under the employment contract. While employers may no longer look like actual persons, their technological ability to track the single worker has by now become almost limitless, and the advantage is also economic, too, according to the low cost of the technologies. It is possible to track workers (geo-localization) not only out outdoor, using widely available satellite technology, but also indoor, within an office or other enclosed spaces. More than that, forecasts are concerning a new scenario of outfits and office furniture equipped with sensors capable of detecting movement, direction, pressure, and the like, in such a way as to monitor not only health and safety of workers, but also observe their productivity, and even micro-tracking their activity, so as to granularly monitor their performance.
In such a scenario, the RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKER AND MACHINE has turned on its head, in that the person risks becoming a cog in a networked production machine governed from the outside by some other entity the worker can neither perceive nor identify. The distance separating the worker from the employer’s decisions is not only physical but also temporal, in that the architecture by which production is governed is software-based and can therefore be programmed in advance, before the employer begins to exercise actual control over an employee. Many principles in labor law thus take on entirely new contours. The first of these principles is the right to direct and control the way that work is performed, a right whose exercise is increasingly taking “occult” forms.
The second, and related, principle is the right to oversee and MONITOR WORK, which can turn into a pervasive power, not only in the daily transactions through which the working relationship unfolds, but also in consideration of all the potential uses that employers can make of the data they collect. These uses are not confined to those that typically mark the critical phases in the single working relationship or in the life of a business, such as the firing, laying off, or demoting of workers. Rather, they expand to cover the full gamut of decisions involved in managing human resources (such as assigning positions to workers, transferring or promoting them, etc.).
Furthermore, the very idea of WORKING TIME gets fuzzy, given the ability to have workers constantly on call through the use of common communications technologies. This raises delicate issues when it comes to the WORK-LIFE BALANCE, making it difficult to further the aims of protections like that of vacation time, maternity and paternity leave, and especially mandatory rest breaks. Also deeply affected is the idea of the WORKPLACE, since work can be performed remotely, including from places that have not been identified in advance, as Italian lawmakers have recognized with the recently passed “smart working” law (No. 81/2017). The rapid evolution of the working environment also places emphasis on worker training, a component that can no longer be seen as a mere appendage to the employment contract.
Even legal arrangements that require the worker’s consent need to be considered in light of the situation of increasing INFORMATION ASYMMETRY in which only the employer holds the data needed to assess the tasks being assigned and the corporate enterprise as a whole, and this includes “big data” about each firm’s micro-organization. The “pay to quit” programs (put into effect at companies such as Amazon for ensuring that workers are engaged and productive) exemplify this. It must be considered the ability of anyone to cheaply access public and private databases containing unprocessed bits of data which separately do not amount to anything significant but which in combination turn into useful information that can be used to profile individuals. This clearly raises unprecedented issues in the process of selecting potential new hires, as well as in managing human resources. Witness the provision in Article 8 of the Italian Workers’ Statute, setting forth a blanket prohibition preventing employers from probing into the personal views of prospective hires or of those in their workforce. In the past, Art. 8 has been effective in virtue of its comprehensive nature, but now it needs to be integrated with data-protection principles such as those requiring that the processing of data be adequate, relevant, and limited to what is necessary for the purposes for which is it being processed (Leg. Decree 196/2003).
The issues about PRIVACY are important, too, including the regulations issued by Italian Data Protection Authority. Likewise, essential to the project will be an analysis of the EU law, especially the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR (EU 2016/679). This European regulation gives national labor law some leeway in working out a data protection scheme, but it also entails an overhaul of corporate policies in this area. The new, more encompassing concept of personal data under the GDPR increases the likelihood that data about workers should be commingled with information that employers would find useful in developing their business strategies.
As an open-ended contract having an organizational function, the employment contract cannot strictly define its own purpose and contents in advance. As a result, it inevitably enhances the employer’s ability to exercise directive and control powers over the worker. The task of curbing these powers is entrusted to the legislative process and to collective bargaining. Yet the speed of technological change is now impairing the legal system’s ability to respond to these changes and strike an appropriate balance between these two opposing interests.
The issue is particularly pressing in those sectors of the economy that are becoming increasingly reliant on remote DISINTERMEDIATION through digital technologies that automate the matching of labor supply and demand, especially in services: the so-called gig economy (also referred to as on-demand, peer-to-peer, collaborative, or sharing economy). Examples are Uber and Lift, for non-mass-transit road transport; Foodora and Deliveroo, in home meal delivery.. These (probably a few hundred) platforms will therefore receive special attention in this project.

THE BOUNDARIES OF LABOR PROTECTION

The new productive scenario also raises important questions as concerns the boundaries that can be placed around the regulation of labor. We can clearly appreciate the increasingly rapid disappearance of the Fordist-era employee (and so also, on the flip side, of the employer), an ideal category that has long provided the epistemological foundation on which to build labor law. In fact, work in the Fourth industrial revolution is taking a wide variety of forms. Witness the distinction between works carried out ON A PLATFORM (such as Amazon Turk and Task Rabbit) and works carried out THROUGH A PLATFORM (e.g. Uber, Foodora, Deliveroo). Whereas in arrangements of the latter type we still see a material transaction taking place, in those of the former type the transaction is entirely virtual, even if the posted tasks and services are carried out outside the platform. In this context of platform-mediated work, it is difficult not only to assess whether the work is performed qualifies as employment (dependent work), but also to identify who is the employer (as when dealing with “umbrella companies,” which handle payroll for “platform workers”, enabling them to pay into social security).
The so-called platform economy has forcefully raised the LEGAL ISSUE of how to qualify those who work in it. For an idea of the range of interpretive solutions that have been offered and the significant implications they carry we can look at the case law that has been issued in Italy, the EU, and other countries. Three notable examples are the ruling the labor court of Belo Horizonte issued on 14 Feb. 2017; the ruling the California Labor Commissioner issued on 10 Mar. 2015 in B. A. Berwick v. Uber Tech., n. 11-46739; and the ruling the London Employment Tribunal, issued on 28 Oct. 2016 in Y. Aslam, J. Farrar, and Others v Uber, n. 2202551/2015).
In some legal systems, various techniques have been experimented with a view to providing independent contractors (or rather, a subset of them) with greater protections by introducing an intermediate classification, as in Great Britain and in Spain. In Italy, under current law the only way to secure such protections is by assimilating workers in the gig economy to employees working in a dependent or quasi-dependent position (L. Decree 81/2015); and the recently passed Independent Work Statute (Law 81/2017) has not fundamentally altered this state of affairs.

COLLECTIVE REPRESENTATION OF WORKERS

Equally significant are the problems the so-called Fourth industrial revolution raises in connection with the COLLECTIVE REPRESENTATION of workers. This is mainly the problem of representing the collective interests of “digital workers.” Many commentators have argued that trade unions can no longer refrain from establishing lines of communication with digital workers, for the input these workers provide is essential to a proper understanding of their concerns and of the demands they are making in coping with casualization and discontinuity in the labor market. However, what lies ahead for trade unions in addressing the plight of such workers is undoubtedly an uphill path. This is especially true considering the Italian framework, which lacks the initiatives put into effect in Germany under the leadership of the IG Metal and Ver.di trade unions or in Sweden, where the public transit union Svenska Transportarbetareförbundet has signed a collective agreement with Bzzt, a ride-sharing company based on a Uber business.
The absence of any entity, capable of representing the claims of the digital workforce in Italy has being felt as problem that can no longer be left unattended. The risk of spawning a multiplicity of “spontaneous” organizations devoted to protecting their own interests is a development that could have unpredictable consequences on the Italian model, which has emerged from the CRISIS OF THE PREVIOUS LABOR REPRESENTATION’S SYSTEM by increasingly relying on a stable system of effective labor unions.
The challenges that historically established LABOR UNIONS have had in relating to the multiplex world of “DIGITAL WORK” are rooted, in the first place, in the previously mentioned difficulty of finding a legal qualification for digital workers. Italian labor law is still predicated on the need to protect the dependent work of traditional employees. This feature is significant, and it could undercut the effort to protect independent contractors, who cannot easily fit into the dependent scheme. Nor can digital workers be easily qualified as self-employed independent contractors, for they would have to be represented by entities entrusted with forming collective bargaining agreements and organizing initiatives by which to enable these workers to protect their own interests, and this could give rise to violations of competition law.
Apart from these difficulties, there can be little doubt that traditional labor unions will not be able to adequately deal with the modern labor market unless they respond to the concerns of independent workers, both formally—by bringing the current rules up to date (starting from the rules on COLLECTIVE BARGAINING)—an in their actual approach to these problems. This in turn means revisiting the traditional way of conceiving the democratic basis of labor action. More to the point, the challenge of representing such a motley range of individual interests makes it necessary to move beyond the traditional model of representative democracy by embracing an institutional model premised on the need for labor unions to be engaged in a constant dialogue with their members. Without such a dialogue, it would not be possible to understand and address the dissent expressed by CONTINGENT WORKERS into a cohesive whole.

INTERFERENCE WITH ENTERPRISE LAW

The so-called Fourth industrial revolution also places a strain on the categories in use in civil and business law. We need to ask whether these new ways of organizing the factors of production make it necessary to revisit some well-established concepts, like “entrepreneur” and “enterprise,” that have traditionally assumed a relatively stable organization reliant on the work of professionals and based on criteria of economic efficiency. The effort, more to the point, will be to assess whether these concepts, and the legal status they frame, should also be extended to the new phenomena under investigation, and what the effects of such an extension would be. This question needs to be addressed by considering not only how the entrepreneur’s legal status fits into in this new economic landscape, but also how its application to the new crop of entrepreneurs in the new economy affects competition law. This issue is recently being discussed in the Uber Cases (EUCJ, 20 Dec. 2017, Asociación Profesional Elite Taxi v Uber Systems Spain, C-434/15).
We further need to understand the impact the new forms of work will have on intellectual property, an increasingly significant factor in an economy that in many respects can be described as immaterial. The question comes up as to identify who holds the rights to the intangible goods (software, patenting… ) created by the new “workers.” Indeed, in assigning rights, patent and copyright law assume that the inventions and works of authorship in which such rights subsist are created under an employment or independent contracting relationship—precisely the two scenarios that are vanishing. In dealing with the legal limits applicable to technological instruments that use proprietary software, often tailored to a specific industry or even to a single firm, it also becomes essential to address the question of how trade secrets can be made consistent with a trade union’s right to INFORMATION AND CONSULTATION.

Omissis

Publications in the first year of the project:

  • Carchio C., Mazzanti C.Streghts And Weaknesses Of Platform Work.., in Bellomo-Ferraro, Modern Form of Work, University Press Sapienza, 2020, 73-91 [capitolo di libro OPEN ACCESS GOLD]
  • Casale D.Early Retirement in the Italian.., «ITALIAN LABOUR LAW E-JOURNAL», 2020, 13, 103-123 [rivista OPEN ACCESS GOLD]
  • Casale D.El interés del trabajador en el ingreso ..., «REVISTA IBÉRICA DO DIREITO», 2020, I, 207 - 233 [rivista OPEN ACCESS GOLD]
  • Casale D.La tecnologia nella gestione della previdenza .., in F. da Silva Veiga e D. Pires Fincato (diretores), Estudos de direito desenvolvimento e novas tecnologias, Instituto Iberoamericano de Estudos Jurídicos, Universidade Lusófona do Porto, 2020, 9-22 [capitolo di libro OPEN ACCESS GOLD]
  • Castellucci S.Blockchain e misurazione dell’orario di lavoro, in Federalismi, 2021, 2, 45-52 [rivista OPEN ACCESS GOLD].
  • Castellucci S.I controlli difensivi.., in ADL, 2020, 1, 138-148 [nota a sent, GREEN ACCESS].
  • Castellucci S., Il riposo giornaliero.., in LPA, 2020, fasc. 4, [nota a sent].
  • Castellucci S.L’applicazione dell’art. 4 Stat. Lav..., in LG, 2020, 1089-1095 [nota a sent, GREEN ACCESS].
  • Falsone M.Recensione a "Aloisi, De Stefano, il tuo capo è un algoritmo, Laterza, 2020" su L'indice dei libri del mese, 12 2020.
  • Gaudio G., Algorithmic management, poteri datoriali e oneri della prova... Labour & Law Issues, 2020, 6(2), 19-71. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.2421-2695/11955 [rivista OPEN ACCESS GOLD]
  • Giovanella F.Can ‘Things’ Be Defective Products?..., European Journal of Consumer Law, 3/2020, 587-609 [rivista]
  • Marinelli F.Pandemia e mercato del lavoro...tecnologia, in LDE, n. 3/2020, 1-10 [rivista OPEN ACCESS GOLD]
  • Miotto L. (e Speranzin)I pagamenti elettronici, in Diritto del Fintech a cura di Cian-Sandei, Padova, 2020, 163-194 [capitolo di libro]
  • Monda G.Covid-19 e riders.., in DLM, 2020 [rivista]
  • Monda G.Innovazioni tecnologiche e lavoro nelle pubbliche ..(parr. da 6 a 11), in DRI, n. 2, 2020 [rivista]
  • Monda G.Lavoro pubblico e trasformazione digitale, in SINAPPSI, n. 1, 2020 [rivista OPEN ACCESS GOLD]
  • Monda G.Lo Statuto dei lavoratori alla prova di “Industria 4.0”…, in Quaderni DLM, 2020 [rivista]
  • Monda G.Some thoughts on industry 4.0 and trade unions, in The Future of Work, ed. by Perulli-Treu, 2020 [capitolo di libro]
  • Renzetti S.Artt. 266-271, e Malavasi R. e Renzetti S., Artt. 247-252, in Comment. breve al C.P.P., a cura di Illuminati-Giuliani, Cedam, 2020, 1141-1162 e 1030-1050 [commento giuridico]
  • Zilli A.Il lavoro agile per Covid-19 come “accomodamento ragionevole”..., in Labor, 4/2020 [rivista]
  • Zilli A.Il reclutamento emergenziale …, in Garofalo, Tiraboschi, Filì, Seghezzi (a cura di), Welfare e lavoro .., Vol. II: Covid-19 e sostegno .., 1-14, in https://moodle.adaptland.it [capitolo di libro OPEN ACCESS GOLD]

Presentations and speeches in the first year of the project:

  • 24 aprile 2020, P. Monda, relazione dal titolo “Lo SMART WORKING e l’emergenza sanitaria” al Convegno su “Lo sviluppo tecnologico: opportunità e rischi” svolta mediante Microsoft Teams, Università di Napoli Federico II;
  • 27 giugno 2020, A. Zilli (anche organizzatrice), WEBINAR SMART WORKING: LUCI E OMBRE, Udine.
  • 1 luglio 2020, M. FalsoneDIRITTI SINDACALI dei lavoratori tramite piattaforme digitali, a “Etero-organizzazione e lavoro mediante piattaforma digitale” organizzato dall’Università di Roma Sapienza e la rivista Labor, Roma-Pisa.
  • 7 luglio 2020, A. ZilliIl LAVORO AGILE durante l'emergenza epidemiologica, AGI AIGA su piattaforma zoom.
  • 30 ottobre 2020, P. Monda, relazione dal titolo “TELELAVORO e smart working tra dinamiche organizzative e identità giuridica” al Convegno su “Tutela della salute pubblica e rapporti di lavoro” svolta mediante Microsoft Teams, Università di Napoli Federico II
  • 22-23 novembre 2019, C. Drigo, relazione dal titolo "POTERE DIGITALE E DEMOCRAZIA: spunti di riflessione e (molti) problemi aperti", al Convegno ICONS 2019 "Le Nuove Tecnologie E Il Futuro Del Diritto Pubblico”, Firenze.
  • 14 dicembre 2020, G. Spedicato, Relazione "Qualche breve riflessione su «Capitalismo immateriale» di Stefano Quintarelli" al convegno di presentazione del libro medesimo, Università di Bologna.
  • 16 dicembre 2020, G. Spedicato, Relazione "Creatività artificiale e proprietà intellettuale" al seminario "Creer AI the future of creativity" organizzato dall'Alma Mater Research Institute for Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence, Università di Bologna.
  • 26 gennaio 2021, F. Marinelli (anche co-organizzatrice), relazione “Gender gap e lavoro al tempo del Covid-19. Analisi del fenomeno nel contesto internazionale” al Webinar “Gender gap e lavoro al tempo del Covid-19” organizzato dall’ordine degli Avvocati di Milano col patrocinio dell’Associazione delle Donne Giurista Italia (ADGI) e la Scuola Forense di Milano.

Publications in the second year of the project:

  • Battista L.The European Framwork Agreement on Digitalisation: a tough coexistence within the EU mosaic of actions, in Italian Labour Law e-Journal, 1, 2021, 105-121, DOI: https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.1561-8048/13357 [articolo in Rivista OPEN ACCESS GOLD].
  • Castellucci S.Blockchain e misurazione dell’orario di lavoro, in www.federalismi.it [articolo in Rivista OPEN ACCESS GOLD]
  • Cordella C.Il lavoro dei rider: fenomenologia, inquadramento giuridico e diritti sindacali, WP C.S.D.L.E. "Massimo D'Antona".IT 441/2021 [wp OPEN ACCESS GOLD].
  • Falsone M.Fattorini di tutto il mondo unitevi!, recensione a Marco Marrone, Rights Against the Machines! Il lavoro digitale e le lotte dei rider, in L’indice dei libri del mese, 11, 30 [contributo breve in Rivista].
  • Falsone M.Nothing New Under the Digital Platform Revolution? The First Italian Decision Declaring the Employment Status of a Rider, in The Italian Law Journal, Vol. 07, No. 01, 253-269 [articolo in Rivista OPEN ACCESS GOLD].
  • Falsone M.La repressione della condotta antisindacale fra spiazzamenti, potenzialità inespresse ed esigenze di Manutenzione, in LD, 2021, fasc. 2, 373-398, doi: 10.1441/100870 [articolo in Rivista].
  • Gaudio G.La CGIL fa breccia nel cuore dell'algoritmo di Deliveroo: è discriminatorio, in RIDL, 2021, II, 189 [commento in Rivista].
  • Monda P.Telelavoro e smart working tra dinamiche organizzative e identità giuridica, in Quaderni DLM, 2021, p. 285 ss. [volume in serie OPEN ACCESS GOLD].
  • Monda P.Il lavoro agile “ordinario” tra accordo individuale e (in)derogabilità della norma, in LDE, 2021, fasc. 3 [articolo in Rivista OPEN ACCESS GOLD].
  • Monda P.Some Thoughts on Industry 4.0 and Trade Unions, in Perulli e Treu eds, The Future of Work Labour Law and Labour Market Regulation in the Digital Era, Kluwer Law International, 2021, 315-324 [capitolo in libro].
  • Spedicato G.Mercati virtuali secondari tra libertà di iniziativa economica privata e rispetto degli altrui diritti di proprietà intellettuale, in GComm, fasc.3, 2021, 491-513 [commento in Rivista].
  • Zilli A.La trasparenza salariale tra diritti e tecnologia, in LG, 2021, fasc. 6, 579-590 [articolo in Rivista].
  • Zilli A.Oltre la subordinazione, nella pandemia: il progetto di un focus sul reddito da lavoro degli autonomi, introduzione alla raccolta speciale monografica a cura della A. medesima, in LDE, fasc. 3/2021 [raccolta monografica in Rivista OPEN ACCESS GOLD].

Presentations and speeches in the second year of the project:

  • 11-13 marzo 2021, A. Zilli, organizzatrice di Employment law in the covid-crisis France and Italy in comparison, international online workshop.
  • 19 marzo 2021, A. Zilli, organizzatrice di La prova statistica nel processo civile, convegno presso la Università di Udine.
  • 12 Aprile 2021, A. Zilli (anche organizzatrice), Dir. 78/2000: la prima volta della Cassazione, seminario congiunto delle Università di Udine e Università di Innsbruck.
  • 16 aprile 2021, A. Zilli (anche organizzatrice dell’intero ciclo di 7 eventi “Diritto della Sicurezza Digitale”), Nuove tecnologie e dignità della persona che lavora, relazione a convegno Connessioni fra diritto e tecnologia, Università di Udine.
  • 22 aprile 2021, A. Zilli (anche organizzatrice dell’intero ciclo di 7 eventi), Il trattamento dei dati personali nel rapporto di lavoro tra obblighi di pubblicazione e riservatezza, Università di Udine.
  • 30 aprile 2021, G. Gaudio (anche co-organizzatore, con M. Falsone), Quali regole governano gli strumenti di algorithmic management nella gestione del personale?, relazione a convegno, Lavoro e impresa al tempo degli algoritmi. Quattro domande per un dialogo interdisciplinare, Univ. di Venezia.
  • 16 luglio 2021, G. GaudioFuture of Work, Future of Regulation: Transparency in Algorithmic Management and Gender in the Platform Economy, Univ. of Bristol.
  • 28 giugno 2021, G. GaudioAlgorithmic bosses can’t lie! How to foster transparency and limit abuses of the new algorithmic managers, at Labour law and artificial intelligence conference, Warsaw, Poland, 27-29 June, 2021.
  • 1 luglio 2021, M. FalsoneQualificazione e tutele del lavoro mediante piattaforme digitali, relazione a Etero-organizzazione e lavoro mediante piattaforme digitali, La Sapienza Roma.
  • 8 settembre 2021, G. Gaudio, intervento, presso Transformation of work: challenges to labor law, at The XXIII World Congress of the International Society for Labour and Social Security Law (ISLSSL), Lima. Perù, 7-10 September.
  • 19-22 settembre 2021, L. Battista, intervento, come Staff dell'Organizing Committee, "Seminar Of Comparative Labour Law “Pontignano XXXVII”, Labour Relations In The Digital Era, Bertinoro, 2021.
  • 22 settembre 2021, S. Castellucci, participation a "Seminar Of Comparative Labour Law “Pontignano XXXVII”, Labour Relations In The Digital Era, Bertinoro, September 19th-22nd 2021.
  • 2 dicembre 2021, P. MondaLe prospettive di riforma del lavoro agile nel «pubblico», Il lavoro agile tra passato e futuro, tra poteri e libertà, giornata di studio presso la Università di Napoli Federico II.
  • 3 dicembre 2021, G. GaudioC’è ma non si vede. Controllo algoritmico e tutela della privacy dei lavoratori, seminario on line SDL HUB.
  • 7 dicembre 2021, L. BattistaRiders, piattaforme e diritto del lavoro, seminario presso il Dipartimento di Sociologia e Diritto dell’Economia, Università di Bologna.
  • 10 dicembre 2021, P. MondaLa “scelta” del dirigente pubblico: le norme applicabili e l’apporto della giurisprudenza, relazione a L’evoluzione normativa del lavoro pubblico e il rafforzamento della capacità amministrativa: problemi e prospettive, Complesso del Real Belvedere di San Leucio.
  • 16 dicembre 2021, D. Casale (anche co-organizzatore), intervento, presso Seminari di Bertinoro Dialoghi di diritto del lavoro tra cielo e mare XVI edizione, Temi e approdi della ricerca scientifica giuslavoristica: lo stato dell’arte dei prin finanziati dal Miur, Bologna, 16-17 dicembre 2021, nonché gli interventi degli altri membri prin:
    --- Falsone, Intervento, per l’Unità di ricerca della Università Ca' Foscari di Venezia;
    --- Monda, Intervento, per l’Unità di ricerca dell’Università degli studi di Napoli Federico II;
    --- Zilli, Intervento, per l’Unità di ricerca dell’Università degli studi di Udine;
  • 14 gennaio 2022, Falsone M. (anche organizzatore), La qualificazione dei rapporti lavorativi: subordinazione, autonomia, esigenze di tutela, presso il convegno Lavoro e Diritti nella Rivoluzione di Internet, Università Venezia Ca’ Foscari, 13-14 gennaio 2022, nonché gli interventi degli altri membri prin:
    --- Battista, Innovazione tecnologica, riorganizzazioni industriali e occupazione;
    --- Casale, Intervento di coordinamento della sessione;
    --- Cordella, Le relazioni sindacali nel settore del food delivery: la prospettiva interna;
    --- Falsone, Subordinazione e (dis)continuità della prestazione;
    --- Gaudio, Il contenzioso sui diritti dei lavoratori al tempo del management algoritmico;
    --- Giovanella, Privacy del lavoratore e nuove tecnologie: profili di diritto comparato;
    --- Guardigli, I criteri di imputazione della responsabilità ex art. 2049 c.c., sotto la lente dei modelli di lavoro della rivoluzione digitale;
    --- Miotto, Il bilanciamento degli interessi nel diritto commerciale: il crowdfounding;
    --- Monda, Tutele collettive e riders: quali vincoli dal diritto eurounitario?;
    --- A. Zilli, Intervento di coordinamento della sessione.